A statistician called Mohan Srivastava was thinking about scratchcards.He’d been given some as a joke presentand was wondering on this idea of controlled randomness.And he realised there must be some way for the lotteryto identify which cards were winners without havingto scratch them off.On each card there were a series of digits.And some of these would appear two times, three times.But some numbers and symbols only appeared once on the card.And actually if these unique numbers appeared in a row,that card was always a winner.And he went and bought more cardsand tested out his strategy.And every single time, the cards that had these numbers in a rowwere guaranteed winners.Now what would you do in this situation?You’ve essentially cracked scratchcards.You’ve got a system which can identifythe winning ones and the not winning onesjust by looking at them.Would you go out and buy tonnes?What would you do?Well, think back to that slide that I showed you at the start. Learn more about luck and lotteries at CasinoSlots.

Winning scratchcards are remarkably rare.And actually what Mohan did, rather than justgoing on a huge scratchcard buying spree,was work out how long it would take him to buy up enough cardsand guarantee himself a winner.And he was a statistician working on geological problemsearning pretty decent money.And he realised that actually, although he had a winninglottery strategy, it was better off just to stick in hisexisting job.So what he did was he rang up the lotteryand told them that there was a hidden codeon their scratchcards, and he had deciphered it,and he knew how to win.The lottery, of course, didn’t take him seriously.So what he did was actually collected the scratchcards.And he identified some winning ones, some losing ones,divided them into two piles and posted themby courier to lottery.That evening he got a phone call from lottery saying,we need to have a chat.And really the story is representativeof a lot of areas of gambling.Often it’s not professional gamblerswho come up with these strategies thatbeat the system.And often people who beat the system,don’t become professional gamblers.For a lot of these people, gamblingis almost a playground for ideas.It’s a way of testing out problem solving and skills thatactually would apply to many other industries.

People who have tried these problemsare moving into academia, into finance, into business.And as I mentioned with Cardano, this isn’t a new phenomenon.Really throughout history, many of the great thinkersand mathematicians have used gamblingas a way of refining their ideas.In around 1900, a French mathematiciancalled Henri Poincare was particularly interestedin gambling.Now Poincare was one of the–what’s know as the last universalists.As a mathematician, he was one of the last peopleto specialise in almost every area of the subjectas existed at the time.It hadn’t expanded to the point whereit was as large as it is today.And one of the things he was interested inwas predictability.And to him, unexpected events, unexpected outcomeswere the result of ignorance.He thought if something is unexpected,it’s because we’re ignorant of the causes.And he classed these problems by what he calledthe three levels of ignorance.The top level was a situation wherewe know what the rules are, we have the information,we just have to do some basic calculations.